Fukushima cleanup chief urges better use of probe robot — The Seattle Times

” TOKYO (AP) — The head of decommissioning for the damaged Fukushima nuclear plant said Thursday that more creativity is needed in developing robots to locate and assess the condition of melted fuel rods.

A robot sent inside the Unit 2 containment vessel last month could not reach as close to the core area as was hoped for because it was blocked by deposits, believed to be a mixture of melted fuel and broken pieces of structures inside. Naohiro Masuda, president of Fukushima Dai-ichi Decommissioning, said he wants another probe sent in before deciding on methods to remove the reactor’s debris.

Unit 2 is one of the Fukushima reactors that melted down following the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.

The plant’s operator, Tokyo Electric Power Co., needs to know the melted fuel’s exact location as well as structural damage in each of the three wrecked reactors to figure out the best and safest ways to remove the fuel. Probes must rely on remote-controlled robots because radiation levels are too high for humans to survive.

Despite the incomplete probe missions, officials have said they want to stick to their schedule to determine the removal methods this summer and start work in 2021.

Earlier probes have suggested worse-than-anticipated challenges for the plant’s cleanup, which is expected to take decades. During the Unit 2 probe in early February, the “scorpion” robot crawler stalled after its total radiation exposure reached its limit in two hours, one-fifth of what was anticipated.

“We should think out of the box so we can examine the bottom of the core and how melted fuel debris spread out,” Masuda told reporters.

Probes are also being planned for the other two reactors. A tiny waterproof robot will be sent into Unit 1 in coming weeks, while experts are still trying to figure out a way to access the badly damaged Unit 3.

TEPCO is struggling with the plant’s decommissioning. The 2011 meltdown forced tens of thousands of nearby residents to evacuate their homes, and many have still not been able to return home due to high radiation levels.

Cleanup of communities outside of the plant is also a challenge. The cost has reportedly almost doubled to 4 trillion yen ($35 billion) from an earlier estimate. On Thursday, police arrested an Environment Ministry employee for allegedly taking bribes from a local construction firm president, media reports said. ”

by Mari Yamaguchi, The Associated Press

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Japan tsunami highlights Fukushima nuclear plant vulnerability — Voice of America

” The 7.4 magnitude earthquake and small tsunami that struck Japan’s northeast coast on Tuesday morning tested the sea wall constructed around the Fukushima nuclear plant, that was the site of one of the worst nuclear catastrophes in history.

The earthquake hit at early morning and was centered off the coast of the Fukushima Prefecture at a depth of about 10 kilometers, according to the Japan Meteorological Agency.

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said the first wave of the tsunami was measured at 90 centimeters, then the waves died down. About an hour and a half after the earthquake there was also 1.4 meter wave that was large enough to cause some flooding.

Japanese television showed tsunami waves flowing up rivers in some areas, and some fishing boats were overturned in the port of Higashi-Matsushima.

Reports of injuries and damage from Tuesday’s earthquake and tsunami were minimal. Residents in the region evacuated to higher ground after tsunami warning sirens sounded in the early morning and many ships moved out to sea to ride out the incoming ocean surge.

Magnitude

While the Japan Meteorological Agency calculated the earthquake’s magnitude at 7.4, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured it to be a 6.9 quake.

Tuesday’s earthquake was much less powerful than the 9.0 earthquake that struck the same region in March of 2011, generating enormous tsunami waves, some as high a 40 meters, that killed close to 20,000 people and caused the meltdown of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, the worst nuclear crisis since Chernobyl a quarter of a century earlier.

Geophysicist Rafael Abreu with the USGS Earthquake Information Center says a one magnitude point rise on the seismic scale equals a 32 time increase in destructive power released during an earthquake.

“The magnitude of a 9.0 quake is an earthquake that released 32×32, over 1,000 times more energy then the quake that we had today,” said Abreu.

Fukushima

The Fukushima nuclear reactors that were damaged during the 2011 meltdown have been since shut down, but the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) still maintains cooling systems to prevent the spent nuclear material from overheating and spewing radioactive waste into the air and ocean.

Naohiro Masuda, head of TEPCO’s Decommissioning Unit, said on Tuesday a one-meter tsunami was observed from two Fukushima nuclear power plants but precautions were taken to prevent a possible breech.

“With regards to Fukushima plant No. 1, it appears to be there is no problem inthe plant, but we proactively stopped operation of the contaminated water discharge system with a judgement that it could be problematic if it (radioactive water) leaks out,” he said.

In 2015, TEPCO competed a 780-meter coastal sea wall around the heavily damaged reactor buildings of the Fukushima No. 1 plant to reduce the amount of contaminated water flowing into the ocean. During the worst of the crisis it was leaking 400 tons of radioactive water a day.

An ice wall has also been constructed to reduce the amount of water flowing into the nuclear plant from the nearby mountains.

Kendra Olrich, a Senior Global Energy Campaigner with the environmentalist organization Greenpeace in Japan, said the sea wall fared relatively well this time but Tuesday’s earthquake illustrates that Japan is too geologically unstable to safely operate nuclear power plants.

“All of these earthquakes continue to highlight the absurdity of having nuclear power in a country that is sitting on the Pacific ring of fire,” she said.

Inside the damaged Fukushima plants, efforts are still underway to remove the molten nuclear core and move the highly radioactive materials to a safer storage facility.

Olrich said radioactive contamination that seeped into the surrounding forests during the tsunami five years ago continue to pose a danger to public health and safety. She is also critical of government plans to lift evacuation orders in affected areas next year that would end TEPCO’s obligation to provide compensation, at the cost of potentially exposing residents to increased risks. ”

by Brian Padden; contributions from Youmi Kim

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Tepco admits success of Fukushima ice wall still unknown — The Japan Times

” Tokyo Electric Power Holdings Inc. and the government bet big on an underground ice wall as a key measure to battle the tainted water issue at the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant.

But whether the ¥35 billion gambit funded by the government is working to block the inflow of groundwater remains unclear even six months after the utility started freezing an area of underground soil.

Tepco said it needs more time to judge whether the system is working. But the Nuclear Regulation Authority, Japan’s nuclear watchdog, appears skeptical on the effectiveness of the 1.5-km-long wall that encircles reactor buildings 1 to 4, asking Tepco to deal with the issue but without counting on it.

So far Tepco has finished freezing the east side of the ice wall — albeit with delays caused by severe typhoon-driven rains — and 95 percent of the west side but has yet to get the NRA’s approval to freeze the rest of it.

“It’s really unfortunate and I am very sorry” for not being able to provide an assessment of the ice wall, Naohiro Masuda, who heads Tepco’s decommissioning project, told a news conference Thursday.

Masuda said in August that Tepco would be able to provide an assessment of the effectiveness of the ice wall in September, and that the utility would have finished freezing the east side by then.

But Masuda said unexpected heavy rain during recent typhoons melted some parts of the structure.

Masuda said workers have since repaired the damage and finished freezing the east side 100 percent. But he declined to say when the assessment will be released.

The purpose of the ice wall is to block groundwater before it can enter the reactor buildings, which are located between nearby mountains and the ocean.

To do this, Tepco pumps groundwater that has flowed west to east toward five wells near the ocean, back into the reactors to cool them.

If the wall succeeds, the water being pumped from the ocean wells should reduce to about 70 tons each day, from hundreds of tons, according to Tepco. The daily level was between 600-1,200 tons in September, which Tepco attributed to heavy rains.

About 180 tons of groundwater a day seeps into the reactor buildings through cracks or holes and is mixed with contaminated water inside, causing the amount of tainted water at the plant to increase daily.

Currently, about 68,000 tons of tainted water is stored there but the risk remains that it could leak if another powerful quake hits near the facility.

For Tepco, the success of the ice wall is fundamental to achieve its next major goal of removing the contaminated water flooding the basement floors of the reactor buildings.

The utility plans to remove the water by 2020, but believes it can speed up the process by two years if the underground wall works.

The NRA, however, remains unconvinced.

“(Tepco) needs to come up with measures that do not rely on the ice wall and complete the removal of the tainted water from the building by 2020,” Toyoshi Fuketa, deputy NRA chairman, told Tepco officials at a panel meeting Wednesday.

During the meeting, Tepco expressed its intention to freeze the entire west side of the wall.

But Fuketa said, “That’s out of discussion,” since it was still unclear whether the east side was effectively blocking groundwater.

Among the NRA’s concerns is that completely blocking the groundwater on the west side might reduce the groundwater level below the tainted flooded water line in the reactor buildings, which would allow tainted water to leak out.

But as the wall appears to have done little to reduce the amount of groundwater pumped daily, the NRA ordered Tepco to come up with alternative measures.

The NRA has suggested that Tepco strengthen the pumping capability of wells around the reactor buildings to collect the groundwater before it can seep inside.

Tepco said at the Wednesday meeting that it will still be able to finish the removal of tainted water in the buildings by 2020 without the ice wall. ”

by Kazuaki Nagata

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Tepco’s two tales about Fukushima missing melted fuel — SimplyInfo

Read SimplyInfo’s article on where the melted fuel in Fukushima No. 1’s Units 1, 2, and 3 might be, despite vague and omitting statements given by decommissioning chief Naohiro Masuda.

Fukushima clean-up chief still hunting for 600 tonnes of melted radioactive fuel — Mark Willacy, ABC

” The operator of the stricken Fukushima nuclear plant has revealed that 600 tonnes of reactor fuel melted during the disaster, and that the exact location of the highly radioactive blobs remains a mystery.

 In an exclusive interview with Foreign Correspondent, the Tokyo Electric Power Company’s chief of decommissioning at Fukushima, Naohiro Masuda, said the company hoped to pinpoint the position of the fuel and begin removing it from 2021.

But he admitted the technology needed to remove the fuel has to be invented.

“Once we can find out the condition of the melted fuel and identify its location, I believe we can develop the necessary tools to retrieve it,” Mr Masuda said.

“So it’s important to find it as soon as possible.”

Clean-up to take decades, cost tens of billions of dollars

Reactors 1, 2 and 3 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant suffered catastrophic meltdowns in the hours and days after a giant tsunami swamped the facility on 11 March, 2011.

Thousands of workers are braving elevated radiation levels to stabilise and decommission the plant.

TEPCO says the process will take 30 to 40 years and tens of billions of dollars.

“In Reactor 1, all of the fuel has melted down from inside the pressure vessel,” Mr Masuda said.

“In reactors 2 and 3, about 30 per cent to 50 per cent remains in the pressure vessel and the rest has melted down. But unfortunately, we don’t know exactly where [the fuel] is.”

The head of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the time of the meltdowns at Fukushima doubts the fuel can be retrieved, saying such an operation has never been done before.

“Nobody really knows where the fuel is at this point and this fuel is still very radioactive and will be for a long time,” said Gregory Jaczko in an interview with Foreign Correspondent in Washington.

“It may be possible that we’re never able to remove the fuel. You may just have to wind up leaving it there and somehow entomb it as it is.”

Radiation killing search robots inside reactor

For the first time, TEPCO has revealed just how much of the mostly uranium fuel melted down after the tsunami swamped the plant.

“It’s estimated that approximately 200 tonnes of debris lies within each unit,” said TEPCO’s Naohiro Masuda.

“So in total, about 600 tonnes of melted debris fuel and a mixture of concrete and other metals are likely to be there.”

TEPCO has attempted to use custom-built robots to access high-dose radiation parts of the reactor buildings where humans cannot go.

“All the robots have been disabled, the instrumentation, the camera … have been disabled because of the high radiation fields,” former NRC boss Gregory Jaczko said.

Appointed to head the US nuclear watchdog by President Barack Obama in 2009, Dr Jaczko resigned a year after the Fukushima disaster.

A particle physicist, he now questions the safety of nuclear power.

“You have to now accept that in all nuclear power plants, wherever they are in the world … that you can have this kind of a very catastrophic accident and you can release a significant amount of radiation and have a decade long clean-up effort on your hands,” he said.

10 million bags of contaminated soil in gigantic waste dumps

Another supporter turned opponent of nuclear power is Naoto Kan, who was the Japanese prime minister at the time of the Fukushima meltdowns.

He says those who argue that nuclear power is a safe, cheap source of energy are misguided.

“So far, the government is paying $70 billion to support TEPCO,” Mr Kan said.

“But that is not enough. It will probably cost more than $240 billion. I think 40 years [to decommission the plant] is an optimistic view.”

More than 100,000 Japanese are still unable to return home because their communities lie in elevated radiation zones.

Some people have returned to their towns and villages since the completion of decontamination work, which often involves the removal of up to 15 centimetres of topsoil from fields and from around homes.

More than 10 million large bags of contaminated soil and waste have so far been collected. The bags are now stored in thousands of sites around Fukushima, with some of the piles several storeys high.

“In order for people to come back, we need to show that the Fukushima plant is in a stable condition,” Naohiro Masuda said.

“We need to make that the situation … we’re working on something [for] which there is no textbook.” ”

by Mark Willacy

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Fukushima cleanup described by Tepco chief as ‘like working in a field hospital in a warzone’ — ABC News

” Fukushima power plant operators’ recent update on the nuclear accident clean-up makes it clear there is still a long way to go to remediate the area.

It has been almost five years since the nuclear accident at Fukushima, where three reactors experienced core meltdowns and the plant spewed radioactivity across a huge area, forcing hundreds of thousands of people to leave their homes and livelihoods.

The operators said they have picked up the debris from the accident and built some new protective structures on the site but the trickiest job of finding and removing the nuclear fuel in the reactors have not yet started.

Naohiro Masuda, the man tasked with the job of decommissioning the plant, said “in the first couple of years it was like working in a field hospital in a warzone”.

“It was like running through flames,” he said.

Tokyo will host the Olympics in four years and many in the Government would prefer the message from Fukushima to be a lot more positive.

Mr Masuda said there was still melted fuel in reactors one, two and three.

“But honestly we don’t know about the situation, we don’t know where it’s fallen,” he said.

In the five years since the nuclear accident, work at the plant has focused on a physical clean-up of the site, debris from earthquake and tsunami damage to the buildings has been removed.

But the most difficult and complex work has yet to begin and was not known where the melted nuclear debris is inside the reactors.

In the wake of the nuclear disaster, Japan’s 54 nuclear reactors were switched off and a safety review carried out.

The three reactors are operating again — with plans to switch on many more as soon as they meet the requirements of a new, stricter safety code.

Buddhist monk says Government has not ‘learnt its lesson’

The Buddhist monk Tokuo Hayakawa, who resides in the 600-year-old Hokyoji temple in the hills behind the Fukushima power plant, said that Japan has not learnt its lesson from the nuclear accident.

“It’s clear that it’ll happen again,” he said.

He and his community were forced to flee in the aftermath of the nuclear accident.

Dressed in his black prayer robes, adorned with anti-nuclear badges, monk Hayakawa said the Government had let the people down and he believed the situation at the plant was far from under control.

The evacuation order has been lifted in a nearby town, but young people were not returning.

Mr Hayakawa said he believed as the decommission progresses in the area will disappear.

He said the Government should abandon its nuclear energy policy.

“They must stop using nuclear power because safety can’t be guaranteed,” Mr Hayakawa said.

“I feel sad and angry, even more than I did at the time of the accident.”

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